Broad-spectrum penicillins

The third generation of penicillin – semi-synthetic broad-spectrum penicillins

Penicillin third generation actively suppress Gram-negative bacteria. With respect to non-positive bacteria their activity is lower than benzylpenicillin. but slightly higher than the second-generation penicillins. Exceptions are staphylococci producing p-lactamase, which are broad-spectrum penicillins no effect.

  •  Ampicillin (pentreksil, omnipen) – is available in tablets, capsules, and 0.25 grams in vials of 0.25 and 0.5 g applied inside intramuscularly, intravenously every 4-6 hours. The average daily dose is 4-6, the highest daily dose – ’12 ampicillin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus and indolpolozhitelnye penitsillinazoobrazuyuschie strains of Proteus.
  •  Ampicillin well into the bile, sinuses and accumulates in the urine, its concentration in the sputum of lung tissue and low. The drug is indicated for most urogenital infections, and it does not have nephrotoxic. However, in renal failure dose of ampicillin it is recommended to reduce or increase the interval between administration of the drug. Ampicillin at optimal doses are also effective and pneumonia, but the treatment duration is 5-10 days and more.
  •  Cyclacillin (Cyclops) – a structural analogue of ampicillin. Assign inside every 6 hours. The average daily dose of 1-2 g
  •  Pivampitsillin – pivaloyloxymethyl ester of ampicillin – guide-hydrolysis by nonspecific esterases in blood and intestine to ampicillin. The drug is absorbed from the intestine rather than ampicillin. Applied orally at the same dose as ampicillin.
  • Bakampitsshyin (penglab, spektrobid) – refers to the predecessors, releasing ampicillin in the body. Assign inside every 6-8 hours. The average daily dose is 2.4-3.2 g
  •  Amoxicillin – is an active metabolite of ampicillin taken orally every 8 hours. The average daily dose is 1.5-3, the drug compared with ampicillin readily absorbed in the intestines and introduced into the same dose produces twice the concentration in the blood, its activity against susceptible bacteria 5 -7-fold higher in the degree of penetration into the lung tissue it exceeds ampicillin.
  •  Augmentin – a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid is a derivative of β- lactam produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid binds (inhibits) β- lactamase (penicillinase) and thus competitively protects penicillin, potentiating its action. Amoxicillin potentiated by clavulanic acid, is useful for treating infections of the respiratory and urinary tract infections caused by β- lactamase-producing microorganisms, as well as in case of infection that is resistant to amoxicillin.